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Fort Bliss

The military reservation that would become Fort Bliss was initially established on the Rio Grande in the late 1840s shortly after the end of the Mexican-American War and was active from 1848 to 1851.  At this time, it did not have an official name, and was referred to as the “Post Opposite El Paso del Norte.”  There was already a sizeable civilian settlement on either side of the Rio Grande: American El Paso and Cuidad Juarez on the Mexican side.  The fort was comprised of the Third Infantry and was commanded by Jefferson Van Horne.  After this short period of two to three years, its troops were mostly removed to Fort Fillmore, New Mexico Territory.

However, without the troops being present, Indian attacks increased and in early 1854, the United States government established a second fort near a ranch known as the Magoffin Ranch, about a mile from the first location.  The official name of the post became Fort Bliss, honoring Lieutenant Colonel William Wallace Smith Bliss, who had died in 1853, in the years following the Mexican-American War.

Lt. Col. Bliss came from a military family and was a graduate of West Point in 1833.  He served in the United States Army during the Cherokee Wars and returned to West Point around 1840.  Strong in mathematics, he was an associate professor in that area while at West Point.  After this assignment, he returned to the regular Army where at the rank of captain, he served as Chief of Staff to Brig. General Walker Keith Amsted.  Immediately prior to the annexation of Texas into the Union in 1845, Bliss served in Texas, putting him in place to take part in the Mexican-American war in the mid 1840s.  He was involved in the fighting in Palo Alto and for his service there, was promoted to major.  After his service in the battles of Resaca de la Palma and Buena Vista he was again promoted, to Lieutenant Colonel.  It was said of him that in addition to being well suited for the military, he was highly intelligent and gifted.  He was known to be able to speak thirteen languages.

He met Mary Elizabeth Taylor, the youngest daughter of his senior officer General Zachary Taylor, while serving as the general’s aide.  The two courted and were married in 1848 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  Following his military success in the Mexican-American War, General Taylor was encouraged to run for President of the United States for the Whig party, and he won.  The Bliss and Taylor families seemed destined to have a bright future ahead of them, but Taylor did not to serve long as President.  After being inaugurated in early 1849, President Taylor passed away unexpectedly the following year.  His widow followed him in death in 1852.  After serving in New Orleans during a massive outbreak of yellow fever, Bliss contracted and died of the disease at the age of thirty-seven while serving in Louisiana in the summer of 1853.  He was initially interred in the Girod Street Cemetery in New Orleans.  The following year, the Texas fort was named in his honor.  Over one hundred years later, when the cemetery was condemned, Bliss’ remains were removed to the Texas fort that was named for him.

The fort supported activities in the late 1850s during the relatively short Cortina Wars.  In the early days of the Civil War, the site was surrendered to Confederate forces and later burned after the Confederates again passed through the area while heading south, retreating after the Union victory at Glorietta Pass.  None of the actual structures of this second fort are known to remain.

After the Civil War, a new post was created in the same general area, but in a location known as Concordia Ranch.  The structures of this facility were mostly adobe.  During this period, the fort supported activities in defense of activities by the Kickapoo and Mescalero tribes.  Also, conflicts with Apache tribes in the area had regularly occurred since the 1860s and would not be resolved for around another twenty-five years.   This fort lasted until the mid 1870s when the United States government abandoned the post due to the decreased level of Indian conflicts in the area at that time.  Another conflict known as the Salt Wars arose between rival Mexican and Anglo groups over rights to the natural surface salt deposits nearby.  Order was initally restored with the aid of troops from three nearby Army forts.  The strategic value of a fort in the area was again realized and in the late 1870s Fort Bliss was again reactivated.  The Concordia Ranch location remained active until the railroads advanced through the area in the 1880s, generally bisecting the fort, and it was moved once more to the nucleus of its fifth and current location.

At various times, the government had considered moving the activities elsewhere, but the strategic location near El Paso and the fact that the area became a major gateway to Mexico likely helped it to survive various closure and relocation considerations over the years.  It sits at the point where the states of Texas, New Mexico and the Mexican state of Chihuahua all come together.  This location was the staging area for settling border conflicts with Mexico and served defensive purposes for the next several decades that included the Mexican Revolution and the United States government’s various unsuccessful attempts to capture Pancho Villa.

Since then, it has remained active and has been greatly expanded to well over one million acres.  The current fort is located north and east of the city, at the base of the Franklin Mountains.  There is a replica of the second Magoffin era fort on the grounds of the current fort.  It houses The Old Fort Bliss Replica Museum and is generally open to the public in the daylight hours, Monday through Friday, except for holidays.

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Posted by on September 20, 2018 in biography, forts

 

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Abraham Zapruder

Abraham Zapruder’s name became quite familiar to those of us who were old enough to remember the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963.  Zapruder had been on the street at the exact time the attack occurred.  He and his employees had stopped work to enjoy the presidential parade and had been filming the event with his personal home movie camera.

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Posted by on September 13, 2018 in biography, jfk assassination

 

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John Lapham Bullis

John Lapham Bullis was born in Macedon, New York to Abram R. and Lydia P. Lapham Bullis on April 17, 1841.  His historical family faith was Quaker (now known as the Religious Society of Friends or simply just the Friends Church), historically known for their objection to war, their refusal to swear oaths, their teetotalism, their objection to slavery, their plain dress, pious living and more recently, their support of prison reform and social justice.

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Posted by on September 6, 2018 in biography

 

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First African-American Texas Rangers

Nix-Christine

Christine Nix was hired in 1994 and became an officer with the Texas Rangers after serving in the military and as a police officer in Temple before moving to another state.  She later returned to Texas, moving to Austin.  She happened to live near the Texas Department of Safety office which helped to spark her interest in returning to law enforcement.

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Posted by on August 30, 2018 in biography, black history, texas women

 

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Japanese Balloon Bombs Reach Texas in WWII

Earlier this summer, World War II historian G. P. Cox posted an excellent blog entry in his blog Pacific Paratrooper about Japanese balloon bombs reaching the United States.  His article was reblogged here immediately before this post.  If you are interested in World War II in the Pacific, we highly recommend this blog.

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Posted by on August 16, 2018 in world war 2

 

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Ben McCulloch

Benjamin McCulloch was one of twelve children.  He was born November 11, 1811 in Rutherford County, Tennessee to Alexander and Frances Fisher Lenoir McCulloch.  His father was a graduate of Yale College and served in the United States Army in Indian campaigns and also the War of 1812.  The family migrated west from the eastern coastal states.  Ben is thought to have first pursued some other businesses and moved around a lot until he came to Texas in 1835 with another brother and Davy Crockett, a neighbor, in Tennessee.  Ben planned to meet up with Crockett and then head from Nacogdoches to San Antonio but was held up as he recuperated from a case of the measles, not arriving in San Antonio until after the Battle of the Alamo.  He joined Sam Houston and the Texas Army in time for the Runaway Scrape, Houston’s retreat from Santa Anna.

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Quantrill’s Raiders, Frank and Jesse James in North Texas

William Clarke Quantrill was known as a leader of a pro Confederate band of guerrillas during the Civil War.  He was born in Ohio in 1837.  By the age of sixteen, he had become employed as a school teacher in Ohio.  He was from a large family the father of which was reportedly abusive, but who died when Quantrill was still a young adult.  Quantrill left home when he was still under twenty and moved to Illinois where he was working in a rail yard.  He was involved in an altercation in which a man was killed, with Quantrill claiming self defense, but Quantrill was not charged with the killing due to a lack of evidence.  During the rest of the 1850s, Quantrill drifted between jobs and locations winding up in the state of Kansas by the end of the decade.  One of his jobs was to capture runaway slaves for bounties, which he was likely doing at the outset of the Civil War.  He formed a pro Confederate band of raiders having learned guerrilla tactics in other outfits.  His band included Frank and Jesse James, brothers Jim, Bob and Cole Younger, Archie Clement, William T. “Bloody Bill” Anderson and other individuals.

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Posted by on August 2, 2018 in biography, civil war, outlaws and crimes

 

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