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Tom C. Clark

Tom Campbell Clark was born on September 23, 1899 in Dallas, Texas. He was the son of William Henry Clark and the former Virginia Maxey Falls. He was educated at Virginia Military Institute for two years and later University of Texas in Austin, where he received both his undergraduate and law degrees in 1922. After graduation, he returned to Dallas where he worked in his father’s law office and also in the District Attorney’s office. He joined the United States Department of Justice in 1937.

Although it was not the primary focus of his early career, a number of events seem to center around Japanese American affairs. Prior to World War II, Clark had served in California as regional head of the anti-trust division. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, Clark was appointed civilian coordinator of the federal Alien Enemy Control Program on the west coast. President Theodore Roosevelt had issued Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942 which provided in part for the incarceration of German, Japanese and Italian individuals. The United States actually had similar programs as far back as the late 1700s, the most recent being World War II. Following Pearl Harbor, there was a considerable amount of hysteria particularly on the west coast of the United States, at least partly fueled by media personnel and national fears of a Japanese invasion, espionage and sabotage. Although it was controversial at the time, during World War II, some 31,275 “enemy aliens” were confined under this act, 10,905 of which were German, 16,845 were Japanese and another 3,278 were Italians. Clark worked in this program but also was known to have particularly favored the protection of property owned by Japanese American individuals.

Clark was appointed United States Attorney General by President Harry Truman. He is said to have favored the prosecution of individuals who were accused of terrorizing returning Japanese Americans and begun settling claims in wartime related evacuation cases. He is also said to have approved the prosecution of Iva Toguri d’Aquino, one of the various individuals who served Japanese radio as “Tokyo Rose.” d’Aquino was accused of being one of the female radio announcers who worked in broadcasts designed to demoralize Allied troops during the war. d’Aquino was ultimately convicted of treason and served several years of a ten year sentence. By the time her trial began, Clark had left the Department of Justice. d’Aquino was pardoned by President Gerald Ford in 1977 and died in 2006.

Clark is said to have publicly expressed regret for his role in the internment and evacuation of Japanese Americans in World War II. He is quoted as saying, “The truth is – as this deplorable experience proved – that constitutions and laws are not sufficient of themselves; they must be given life through implementation and strict enforcement…let us determine to abide by the lessons that Executive Order 9066 teaches us – first, that the mere existence of a legal right is no more protection to individual liberty than the parchment upon which it is written, and second, that mutual love, respect, and understanding one another are stronger bonds than constitutions.”

Clark was appointed to the United States Supreme Court by President Harry S. Truman in 1949, being the only Texas born individual to serve in this capacity. As an Associate Justice, he served for eighteen years before retiring in 1967, resigning to avoid conflicts of interest that might occur once his son Ramsey Clark became United States Attorney General. He was considered to be a moderate for his decisions and a strong advocate for civil rights.

Image credit: Findagrave.com

Clark continued to serve as a senior judge following his retirement. He was the first director of the Federal Judicial Center, the education and research agency of the United States federal court system. Clark died June 13, 1977 in Manhattan, New York and was buried at Restland Memorial Park in Dallas, Texas.

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Posted by on March 4, 2021 in biography

 

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George Adolphus Scarborough

George Adolphus Scarborough was born October 2, 1859 in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana to George Washington Scarborough and the former Martha Elizabeth Rutland. He was one of at least five siblings. In the 1860 census, the father is described as being a planter with 4,000 acres of land. In the 1870 census the father was shown as keeping a hotel. Between 1870 and 1880, the family had moved to Jones County, Texas. By then, George Adolphus had married the former Mary Frances McMahan on August 30, 1877 in McLennan County, Texas and began to raise their family.

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Posted by on February 25, 2021 in biography

 

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Apollo 13

Apollo 13 may be the most well known Apollo mission, save for the first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11. It included a crew of three, Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise. It was also conceived to be a lunar landing, but that part of the proposed mission was aborted after two days into the flight when an explosion of an oxygen tank damaged the service module. The flight had launched on April 11, 1970 from Cape Kennedy. It was the seventh manned mission of the Apollo series and was intended to be the third to have included a lunar landing.

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Posted by on February 18, 2021 in space program

 

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Ivory Joe Hunter

MEMPHIS, Tenn. (AP) — Ivory Joe Hunter, 63, who wrote between 2,000 and 3,000 country, blues and popular songs, died Friday of lung cancer in a Memphis, hospital. Among his best-known numbers are “My Wish Came True,” “I Need You So,” “Ain’t That Lovin’ You, Baby,” “and “I Almost Lost My Mind.” – The Kane Republican (Kane, Pennsylvania) Sat. Nov 9, 1974.


Ivory Joe Hunter was born to a musical family in 1914 (some accounts say 1911) in Kirbyville, south of Jasper, Texas. There is not much between Kirbyville and the Texas-Louisiana border other than farm land and woods. His father Dave Hunter was a guitar player and laborer and his mother Anna Smith Hunter was a gospel singer and a housewife. In the 1920 federal census, Ivory Joe was one of twelve children. Both of his parents seem to have died while he was young. By the 1930 census, Ivory Joe was living with an older sister Georgia and her family, along with several more of the Hunter siblings in the Port Arthur area where he attended school. Some accounts say that Ivory was a nickname, but as far back as the 1920 census, he was listed with the name Ivory Joe Hunter and his name was given to him by his mother.

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Posted by on February 11, 2021 in biography, black history, entertainers

 

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Sanger Brothers

Phillip, Isaac and Alexander Sanger are credited for having founded Sanger Brothers. They were three sons of Elias and Barbetta Sanger of Bavaria. Elias was a wine merchant and farmer. Isaac had been born in Bavaria (Germany) in 1836 and emigrated to the United States when he was 16, in 1852. Lehman (born in 1838) and Phillip (born in 1841) followed him when they each turned 16. They had all learned the mercantile business from Elias. Isaac worked for a few years in Connecticut for an uncle before coming to Texas in 1857. There he settled in McKinney and co-founded a store, Baum and Sanger. Lehman soon joined them. The partners relocated their store to Weatherford for a while and gradually expanded to other north Texas towns including Decatur, adding Morris Lasker as an associate.

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Posted by on February 4, 2021 in biography

 

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